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Research Articles and Publications

Articles/Chapters by Members of the STS Consortium

Armes, S.E., Lee, J.J., Bride, B.E., & Seponski, D.M. (2020). Secondary trauma and impairment in clinical social workers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 110(3), 1-8.


Beck, E., Blanton, S., Carmichael, D., Bride, B.E., DiGiralomo, A. (2021). Toward a Trauma-informed State: An exploration of a training collaborative. Traumatology.


Brend, D. & Sprang, G. (2020). Trauma-Informed Care in Child Welfare: An Imperative for Residential Childcare Workers, International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilience, 7,1, 154-165. 

Bride, B.E., Olin, I., & Roman, P.M. (2015). Patient violence towards counselors in SUD treatment programs: Prevalence, predictors, and responses. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 57, 9-17.


Bride, B.E., & Kintzle, S. (2011). Secondary traumatic stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in substance abuse counselors. Traumatology, 17, 22-28.


Bride, B.E., & Figley, C.R. (2009). Secondary trauma and caregivers of military personnel. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 79, 314-329.


Bride, B.E., Hatcher, S.S., & Humble, M.N. (2009). Trauma training, trauma practices, and secondary traumatic stress among substance abuse counselors. Traumatology, 15, 96-105.


Bride, B.E., & Figley, C.R. (2007). The fatigue of compassionate social workers: An introduction to the special issue on compassion fatigue. Clinical Social Work Journal, 35, 151-153.


Bride, B.E., Radey, M., & Figley, C.R. (2007). Measuring compassion fatigue. Clinical Social

Work Journal, 35, 155-163.


Bride, B.E. (2007). Prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among social workers. Social Work, 52, 63-70.


Bride, B.E., Jones, J.L., & MacMaster, S.A. (2007). Correlates of secondary traumatic stress in

child welfare workers. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 4, 69-80.


Bride, B.E. & Walls, E. (2006). Secondary traumatic stress in substance abuse treatment. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 5, 5-20.


Bride, B.E. & Jones, J.L. (2006). Secondary traumatic stress in child welfare workers: Exploring the role of supervisory culture. Professional Development: The International Journal of Continuing Social Work Education, 9, 38-43.


Ting, L., Jacobson, J., Sanders, S., Bride, B.E., Harrington, D. (2005). The Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale: Confirmatory factor analyses in a national sample of mental health social workers. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 11, 177-194.

Bride, B.E. (2004). The impact of providing psychosocial services to traumatized populations. Stress, Trauma, and Crisis: An International Journal, 7, 29-46.


Bride, B. E., Robinson, M. M., Yegidis, B., & Figley, C. R. (2004). Development and validation of the secondary traumatic stress scale. Research on social work practice. Vol. 14(1), 27-35.

Hatcher, S.S., Bride, B.E., Oh, H., Pantino, L. (2011). Secondary traumatic stress in juvenile justice workers: An assessment of DJJ education staff exposure to trauma imagery. Journal of Correctional Healthcare, 17, 208-217.


Hendricks, A. (2012). Secondary Traumatic Stress in Child Welfare: Multi-Level Prevention and Intervention Strategies. CW360°: Secondary Trauma and the Child Welfare Workforce, Spring 2012.


Kintzle, S., Yarvis, J., & Bride, B.E. (2013). Secondary traumatic stress in military primary and mental healthcare providers. Military Medicine, 178, 1310-1315.


Kitano, M., Shoji, K., Nakaita, I., Sano, S., Tachibana, S., Bride, B., Shigemura, J., Waki, F., Noguchi, N., Koga, M., Toda, H., Yoshino, A., Shimizu, K., Nagamine, M. (2021). Validity and reliability of the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale-Japanese Version. Neuropsychopharmacology Reports, 41, 476-484.


Lawson, H., Caringi, J., Gottfried, R., Bride, B.E., & Hydon, S. (2019). Secondary traumatic stress, student trauma, and the need for trauma literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 89(3), 421-447.


Lee, J., Miller, S.E., & Bride, B.E. (2020). Development and initial validation of the Self Care Practices Scale. Social Work, 65(1), 21-28.


Lee, J.J., Gottfried, R., & Bride, B.E. (2018). Exposure to client trauma, secondary traumatic stress, and the health of clinical social workers. Clinical Social Work Journal, 46(3), 228-235.


Mathieu, F., & McLean, L., (2014). Managing Compassion Fatigue, Moral Distress and Burnout in a context of patient-centered care. Walton, M., Barnsteiner, J., & Disch, J. (eds) Patient/Family Centered Care – Patient and Care Provider Considerations, Sigma Theta Tau International. Recipient of the 2014 AJN Book of the Year Award.


Mathieu, F. (2015). Beyond Kale and Pedicures: Can we beat burnout and compassion fatigue? (available at

Mathieu, F. (2014). Occupational Hazards: Compassion Fatigue, Vicarious Trauma and Burnout. Canadian Nurse. Vol. 110(5).

Mathieu, F. (2016). Key Strategies to Reduce Compassion Fatigue and Burnout. The Family Caregiver Newsmagazine.


Miller, B. & Sprang, G. (2016). A Components-Based Practice Model for Reducing Compassion Fatigue by Effecting Clinician Experience. Traumatology. 


Molnar, B.E., Sprang, G., Killian, K.D., Gottfried, R., Emery, V., & Bride, B.E. (2017). Advancing science and practice for vicarious traumatization/secondary traumatic stress: A research agenda. Traumatology, 23, 129-142.


Molnar, B., Sprang, G., Bride, B., & Killian, K. (2017). Setting a Research Agenda for Advancing Science and Practice in the area of Vicarious Traumatization/Secondary Traumatic Stress. Traumatology.


Perkins, E., & Sprang, G. (2013). International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Vol. 11(2), 199-213.


Sprang, G. and Garcia, A. (2022). An Investigation of Secondary Traumatic Stress and Trauma-informed Care Utilization in School Personnel, Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma. 

Sprang, G., & Steckler, Zachary. (2022). Traumatic Stress Symptom Expression Following Indirect Exposure: A Multidisciplinary Investigation. Traumatology, Advance on-line publication.  

Sprang, G. , Lei, F. & Bush, H. (2021). Can Organizational Efforts Lead to Less Secondary Traumatic Stress? A Longitudinal Investigation of Change. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 91 (4), 443-453.   

Sprang, G., Whitt-Woosley, A., and Eslinger, J. (2021). Diagnostic and Clinical Utility of the Secondary Traumatic Stress Clinical Algorithm. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 

Sprang, G., Cole, J., & Leistner, C. (2021). In Their Own Words: The Impact of Indirect Trauma Exposure on Judges Presiding Over Cases Involving Minors Involved in Sex Trafficking. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 72(3), 5-20.  

Sprang, G., Ford, J., Kerig, P., & Bride, B. (2019). Defining Secondary Traumatic Stress and Developing Targeted Assessments and Interventions: Lessons Learned from Research and Leading Experts, Traumatology, 25, 2, 72-81.

Sprang, G. (2018). Vicarious Trauma Redefining PTSD, ” In Oxford Bibliographies Ed. Edward J. Mullen. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sprang, G., Kerig, P., Ford, J., & Bride, B.E. (2019). Defining secondary traumatic stress and developing targeted assessments and interventions: Lessons learned from research and leading experts. Traumatology, 25(2), 72-81.


Sprang, G. (2018). Organizational Assessment of Secondary Traumatic Stress: Utilizing the Secondary Traumatic Stress Informed Organizational Assessment Tool to Facilitate Organizational Learning and Change. Trauma Responsive Child Welfare Systems (pp. 261-270). Springer, Cham, Switzerland.


Sprang, G., Ross, L., & Miller, B. (2018). A data-driven, implementation-focused, organizational change approach to addressing secondary traumatic stress. European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare. Vol. 6(1), 62-68.


Sprang, G., Ross, L., Miller, B., Blackshear, K. , Ascienzo, S. (2017). Psychometric Properties of the Secondary Traumatic Stress Informed Organizational Assessment. Traumatology. Vol. 23(2), 165-171.


Sprang, G., Craig, C. & Clark, J. (2011). Secondary traumatic stress and burnout in child welfare workers: A comparative analysis of occupational distress across professional groups. Child Welfare. Vol. 90(6), 149-168.


Sprang, G., Whitt-Woosley, A., & Clark, J. (2007). Compassion Fatigue, Burnout and Compassion Satisfaction: Factors impacting a professional’s quality of life. Journal of Loss and Trauma. Vol. 12, 259–280.


Walsh, C.R., Mathieu, F., Hendricks, A. (2017). Report from the Secondary Traumatic Stress San Diego Think Tank. Traumatology.


Whitt-Woosley, A., Sprang, G., & Eslinger, J. (2020). Exploration of Factors Associated with Secondary Traumatic Stress in Foster Parents, Child and Youth Services Review,

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